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برامج

التبادل الاعلاني


    عملى د /ضياء urine

    شاطر

    metwily
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    ذكر عدد المساهمات : 53

    عملى د /ضياء urine

    مُساهمة من طرف metwily في الخميس ديسمبر 31, 2009 5:30 pm

    normal characteristics ]

    Colour: Typically yellow-amber but varies according to
    recent diet and the concentration of the urine. Drinking more water generally tends to reduce the concentration of urine, and therefore cause it to have a lighter colour. (The converse is also true.)



    Smell: The smell (or "odour", which is the more clinical term, American spelling "odor") of urine may provide health information. For example, urine of diabetics may have a sweet or fruity odour due to the presence of ketones (organic molecules of a particular structure). Generally fresh urine has a mild smell but aged urine has a stronger odour, similar to that of ammonia.


    Density: Density is also known as "specific gravity". This is the ratio of the weight of a volume of a substance compared with the weight of the same volume of distilled water.
    Given that urine is mostly water, but also contains some other substances dissolved in the "water", its density is expected to be close to, but slightly greater than, 1.0. This is true - the density of normal urine is in the range 0.001 to 0.035.




    Sodium (Na+) : Amount in urine varies with diet and the amount of aldosterone (a steroid hormone) in the body.


    Potassium (K+) : Amount in urine varies with diet and the amount of aldosterone (a steroid hormone) in the body.


    Chloride (Cl-) : Amount in urine varies with dietart intake (chloride is a part of common salt, NaCl).


    Magnesium (Mg2+) : Amount in urine varies with diet and the amount of parathyroid hormone in the body. (Parathyroid hormone increases the reabsorption of magnesium by the body, which therefore decreases the quantity of magnesium in urine.)


    Calcium (Ca2+) : Amount in urine varies with diet and the amount of parathyroid hormone in the body.
    (Parathyroid hormone increases the reabsorption of calcium by the body, which therefore decreases the quantity of calcium in urine.)


    Small groups formed from a few different elements:

    Ammonium (NH4+) : The amount of ammonia produced by the kidneys may vary according to the pH of the blood and tissues in the body

    .
    Sulphates (SO42-) : Sulphates are derived from amino acids. The quantity of sulphates excreted in urine varies according to the quantity and type of protein in the person's diet

    .
    Phosphates (H2PO4-, HPO42-, PO43-) : Amount in urine varies with the amount of parathyroid hormone in the body - parathyroid hormone increases the quantity of phosphates in urine.



    [center]

    metwily
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    رد: عملى د /ضياء urine

    مُساهمة من طرف metwily في الخميس ديسمبر 31, 2009 5:31 pm

    ده اللى قدرت عليه وياريت اللى عنده تانى مايحرمناش

    diesl
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    ذكر عدد المساهمات : 4

    رد: عملى د /ضياء urine

    مُساهمة من طرف diesl في الثلاثاء يناير 05, 2010 5:00 pm

    thank u drsh

      الوقت/التاريخ الآن هو الثلاثاء يناير 24, 2017 7:00 am